The Babylonians at the time were celebrating intensely at a feast to one of their gods and they were taken totally by surprise. Unfortunately, some of these semi-historical ancient texts seem, at times, to mix up Nabonidus and Belshazzar. That very night Belshazzar, king of the Babylonians, was slain, and Darius the Mede took over the kingdom, at the age of sixty-two.
Daniel adds a little more biographical information about this new king:.
In the first year of Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of Median descent, who was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans …. Part Two ii :.
Some Favourable Views. Donald was the son of P. The "Toledoths" of Genesis. William H.
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George R. His published version of a dissertation, written on our very subject, is a fully comprehensive treatment of the issues involved — a must read in fact. Identification of Darius the Mede. Identifying Darius the Mede has been a problem because of the lack of a direct correlation between the names in the ancient records of Babylonian kings and the record of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Certainly, the prophet Daniel knew the Babylonian King whom he stylized as "Darius the Mede," even if modern readers are uncertain, since this King Darius cast him into a den of lions. Law's scientific method disqualifies most of these potential candidates and leaves only Cyrus the Great and Gubaru for further consideration. In his extended consideration of Gubaru, a governor of Babylon, Law offers the following evidence explaining why Gubaru cannot be identified as Darius the Mede.
In the original sources, there is no evidence of the following:. On the other hand, Law considers how the evidence concerning Cyrus the Great does fit Daniel's description of Darius the Mede. Part Two iii :.
Textual Clues. Was Daniel twice in the den of lions? No, not if - as according to this series - Darius the Mede was King Cyrus. Sometimes the sacred Scriptures present us with two or more versions of the same incident, but written by different authors and hence from a different perspective. Because of seeming contradictions between or amongst these texts, arising as they do from different sources, critics can pounce on these as examples of biblical contradiction and error.
These tales I concluded, with the benefit of P. Adam, Noah, and Jacob. So, there were two hands at work in this particular narrative, and this fact explains the otherwise strange repetition of several famous incidents recorded in the narrative. Whilst the Egyptianised Ishmael or his family was recounting the story from the perspective of Egypt; Isaac or his kin gave the story from a Palestinian perspective. Archaeologically we have learned that Egypt had, at this time, most appropriately, flowed over into southern Canaan.
Hence, as with the case of the abduction of Sarah, it can read as if referring to two separate incidents.
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Let us consider the points of comparison:. The scene is Babylon ; Bel v. In both cases, Daniel is on very good terms with a Medo-Persian king ; Bel v. The people conspire against Daniel and the king on religious grounds ; Bel vv.
Compare Translations for Daniel 11:1
The king, under extreme pressure was distressed ; Bel v. The fate was a den of lions , 16; Bel v. The king comes to the den to see what fate has befallen Daniel ; Bel v. Daniel has been miraculously delivered ; Bel v. Daniel is lifted out of the den ; Bel v. His accusers are thrown into the den and are instantly devoured ; Bel v.
Xerxes's second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful. Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles. More recent estimates place the Persian force at around 60, combatants. At the Battle of Thermopylae , a small force of Greek warriors led by King Leonidas of Sparta resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were ultimately defeated. According to Herodotus, the Persians broke the Spartan phalanx after a Greek man called Ephialtes betrayed his country by telling the Persians of another pass around the mountains.
At Artemisium , large storms had destroyed ships from the Greek side and so the battle stopped prematurely as the Greeks received news of the defeat at Thermopylae and retreated. After Thermopylae, Athens was captured. Most of the Athenians had abandoned the city and fled to the island of Salamis before Xerxes arrived.
A small group attempted to defend the Athenian Acropolis , but they were defeated. Xerxes ordered the Destruction of Athens and burnt the city, leaving an archaeologically attested destruction layer, known as the Perserschutt. Xerxes was induced by the message of Themistocles against the advice of Artemisia of Halicarnassus to attack the Greek fleet under unfavourable conditions, rather than sending a part of his ships to the Peloponnesus and awaiting the dissolution of the Greek armies.
According to Herodotus, fearing that the Greeks might attack the bridges across the Hellespont and trap his army in Europe, Xerxes decided to retreat back to Asia, taking the greater part of the army with him. This force was defeated the following year at Plataea by the combined forces of the Greek city states, ending the Persian offensive on Greece for good. After the military blunders in Greece, Xerxes returned to Persia and oversaw the completion of the many construction projects left unfinished by his father at Susa and Persepolis. He oversaw the building of the Gate of All Nations and the Hall of a Hundred Columns at Persepolis, which are the largest and most imposing structures of the palace.
He oversaw the completion of the Apadana , the Tachara Palace of Darius and the Treasury, all started by Darius, as well as having his own palace built which was twice the size of his father's.
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His taste in architecture was similar to that of Darius, though on an even more gigantic scale. Although Artabanus bore the same name as the famed uncle of Xerxes, a Hyrcanian , his rise to prominence was due to his popularity in religious quarters of the court and harem intrigues. He put his seven sons in key positions and had a plan to dethrone the Achaemenids. Greek historians give contradicting accounts of events. According to Ctesias in Persica 20 , Artabanus then accused the Crown Prince Darius, Xerxes's eldest son, of the murder and persuaded another of Xerxes's sons, Artaxerxes , to avenge the patricide by killing Darius.
But according to Aristotle in Politics 5. After Artaxerxes discovered the murder, he killed Artabanus and his sons. In Histories , Herodotus relates that the Persian King invites council of noblemen from Persia, with which he decided to share the following plans. Earlier attacks from Hellenic forces incited a need for recompense.
Therefore two out of a handful noblemen were brave enough to cite their advice on the potential warfare coming up. One of which is Mardonius, who with slightly flattering words seemed to spur the king to his decision, and agreed on the matter. When Mardonius finished, it was said that slandering the neighbouring nation is not only hurting the man absent, but also the man deciding on it, implying the words were of no use to his decision.
Artabanus, Xerxes uncle and brother of Darius I whose speech was heard made an impression on the king, wherewith the king furiously ascribed his advisor with cowardice. And fittingly disabled him to battle with the army, and stay home with the women. However, remarkably, later that night, he struggled on Artabanus words, and changed his mind. It was said Xerxes received a vision of a tall and handsome man reminding him the unfaithfulness of changing his mind, and emphasizing the decision made, should be pursued.
The next day, his uncle was excused, and the Ionian and Dorian people were left in peace. However, that same night again, a vision was given to Xerxes. Son of Darius, have you then plainly renounced your army's march among the Persians, and made my words of no account, as though you had not heard them? Know for certain that, if you do not lead out your army immediately, this will be the outcome of it: as you became great and mighty in a short time, so in a moment will you be brought low again. The king, perplexed and confused, did not find the confidence to follow up its implications.
Therefore Artabanus was told by the king he, on one term, decided to attack again. Before he made this verdict, he gave his uncle the order to wear his clothes and sleep in his bed, so that he would have that same vision. Darius brother squinted the eyes of disbelief, but determined not much later, to agree. Chapter seven ends. Chapter eight starts with the faring assertive naval armies from Greece. The story of the council above mentions the uncle of Xerxes.
In his spoken words, he mentions a god that strikes whoever strives to attain anything above greatness. A god that humbles the people, and does not suffer their pride.