This requires that fish be collected and stored for successive stocking which is rather difficult with the existing means and facilities.
The problems are minimized because of the close cooperation among all groups involved and usually compromise solutions are reached. Because of these reasons the larger reservoirs are better suited to sport fishing. Poaching is a serious problem which is expected to be reduced when public awareness, understanding, and acceptance of fishery work are better developed. Law enforcement will also help considerably. There are as yet no problems arising from other organized water recreation like dinghy sailing, rowing, canoeing, paddling, swimming, etc.
Pollution is not regarded a problem especially in mountain reservoirs, although sport fishing may be affected at several sites along the sea, mainly near factories. Generally the problems which now exist as regards the recreational fisheries in Cyprus can easily be solved. The formulation of a relevant governmental policy will help avoid conflicts which now exist in other countries.
It is expected that the large reservoirs under construction will contribute positively to the number of anglers.
Recreational fisheries in Cyprus, both in fresh water and in the sea, are expected to continue gaining supporters. New possibilities for increasing food generally are being sought. Extraordinary importance is attached to produce provided by both sea and fresh waters because they can make a substantial contribution to the food supply. The sources of sea fishing are limited; this adds increasing importance to the role of freshwater fisheries that, as believed by experts, stand on a threshold of intensive development.
In Czechoslovakia the task of securing self-sufficiency in the nutrition of the population and tasks associated with the protection and formation of the living environment have necessitated a re-evaluation of the mission and importance of fisheries. Fisheries enjoy intensive support and encouragement because of the high dietetic and nutritive value of fish flesh, the high economic effectiveness of production, and other factors associated with the need for the qualitative and quantitative development of water resources including their recreational function.
In relation to the plans for the production of fish in ponds, new and high importance is now attached to the planned development of modern management of water courses and reservoirs also to obtain much higher fish crops from these sources.
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In Czechoslovakia as a country with advanced industrial production, this constitutes a very complicated problem because harsh regulatory interference with water courses still occurs. The population's requirements for the quantity of water is increasing. However, used water returns to the rivers in a very polluted condition and the eutrophication of flowing waters and reservoirs is increasing along with the intensification of agricultural production. However, even under such conditions, the number of organized sport fishermen is increasing, exerting an increasing fishing pressure upon the waters.
This increase is due to the growth of the living standard resulting in more leisure time. The labour force is turning to angling for regeneration of mental potentials and mental health in general. For these reasons, recreational fisheries have a firm position in Czechoslovakia not only within the general scope of fisheries and in the national economy, but also in the formation of an advanced socialist society.
Fisheries have a well established tradition in Czechoslovakia. At this time there are ha of water, including 54 ha of ponds. The State Fisheries National Corporation provides pond management for fish farming and special fishing facilities. Fishing in rivers, canals, reservoirs and natural lakes is the domain of the special-interest social organizations of the Czech and Slovak Fishers' Unions.
On the whole, the organizations of the Fishers' Unions comprise 3 workers.
The annual total fish production is above 17 tons and is worth million crowns. The annual fish crop from open waters is about 3 tons, including above tons of the fish crops harvested commercially by the mentioned organizations. The majority of the fish are caught by anglers. The total consumption of fish per capita of population excluding the angled fish is 6,6 kg. The proportions of sea to freshwater fish is 5,50 to 1,10 kg. The Fishers' Unions carry out their economic activities on more than 72 ha of open waters water courses, lakes.
The length of the river network, managed by these unions, is km. In 3 ha of ponds, the unions produce fish stocks for releasing in the fishing districts. The districts are included in two classes: trout and coarse fishing water districts. The former are characterized by an ichthyomass of — kg per ha, in exceptional cases 1 kg per ha. In the coarse water districts, in the submontane zone, the fish stocks range from to kg per ha, exceptionally 1 kg.
In the lowland zone, the river ichthyomass is between and kg per ha, and in the inundated arms of big rivers stocks of kg are not exceptional. The Fishers' Unions also systematically manage reservoirs, representing a total area of 25 ha. The sport-fishing and recreational interests have been concentrated on these lakes in recent years.
The number of organized anglers has exceeded One angler spends 1—70 days fishing. The total angling fish crop is 3 tons annually. The average catch is 10—12 kg per angler in trout waters and 18—23 kg in coarse waters.
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The sum of the annual fees membership fee, fishing licence, the basic permit, administrative fee is 65 million crowns crowns per person annually. Besides this, an angler spends other money for fishing clothes, gear, small utensils, baits and feeds, special periodicals and literature, all worth about crowns annually.
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In such a case the sum of expenditures is ,5 million crowns annually. However, the total sum should also include the expenditures for fishers' food, transport and the like, estimated to be above crowns per angler per annum. The value of boats and other facilities owned by anglers is million crowns on the whole.
The value of the fixed assets of the unions has reached million crowns. The output of fish stocks for stocking the fishing districts is as high as 23 million crowns per annum. The output of fish for market is worth 4 million crowns. Sport fishermen have worked 2 hours in the construction and maintenance of fish breeding facilities and in the improvement of breeding and fishing conditions in their districts.
Czechoslovakia, with its geographical position and with many submontane lakes, reservoirs and natural lakes, has many biotypes for the existence of many fish species attractive for sport fisheries: salmonids, cyprinids, percides, and others. The outstanding natural conditions and resources are not yet fully utilized and many reserves still remain. Support is given to the development of transport, communication, and services for fishermen and it is expected that remote resources will be also dynamically used.
Sport fishing as an activity pursued mostly in free time is one of a number of the forms of the utilization of natural resources. The conception of recreation, mostly in connection with fisheries, is highly esteemed in modern planning in Czechoslovak recreational areas, like in other countries with a high living standard.
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In compliance with the fisheries law, fisheries and the fishing right belong to the state Table 1. Fisheries are represented, first of all, by pond management by all enterprises of the State Fisheries. The stocking of fish in the various districts is the responsibility of the organizational units of the Fishers' Unions. The right of fishing belongs to the state and can be applied only in fishing districts. It implies the right and duty to keep, breed, protect and catch fish and other water animals in fishing districts, and take possession of the catch, and to use for these purposes the littoral land to an absolutely necessary extent.
Most of the pond areas are managed by the State Fisheries enterprises through their subordinated organizations establishments, farms. Their duties include modern management and efforts for maximum output of market fish. The fishing districts and ponds in which stock fish are produced for stocking the districts are managed by the Czech Fishers' Union and Slovak Fishers' Union.
The Czechoslovak Fishers' Union is a federal union body for the co-ordination of the national and international activities of the unions and for the co-ordination of the technical development of the unions. The departments of these ministries approve and direct the projects of the development of fisheries, capital investments, technical development, production plans, scientific and research development, activity of special educational institutions and other forms of education. They see to it that the fishery law is respected. They approve the plans for fish stocking in both running and other open waters.
Much of the directing work in fisheries is done by separate sections of Environment Protection and Formation established at these ministries. The Departments of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Regional National Committees direct fisheries in running and other open waters, control the adherence to laws and directives and the purity of waters. They have the right to make an exception to the fishery law and to establish protected landscape regions and reserves in the territories administered by them.
The Departments of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the District National Committees have the right to approve, in their districts, fishery police, fishery managers from among union members, to make exceptions to the law and issue water-law decisions, and the like. Table 1. Organization of fishery management and research in Czechoslavakia. The Czechoslovak citizens who are actively interested in the development of fisheries and wish to be users under fishery law are organized in the Czech Fishers' Union or Slovak Fishers' Union. Membership in the unions is voluntary.
Membership is accessible to all persons who are at least 18 years old and meet the requirements for becoming a regular member. Every member is obliged to take part in special courses and to pass examinations in basic fishery regulations and knowledge. The members are accepted by the local basic organizations of the unions on the basis of a written application.
A person may belong to only one local organization that is in the one closest to his or her permanent neighbourhood or temporary residence. The unions, in compliance with their mission, are interested in a continuous rise of their membership. In this sense, they create conditions for the widest possible range of citizens to be involved in fishing activities and in applying the fishery law. The activities of the unions and their organizational units are directed by their rules. The rules constitute the basic document of the unions.
They regulate the mission of the unions, their legal status, main tasks, organizational structure, and economic management. The territorial sphere of action of the basic local, municipal organizations covers a territory that is, as a rule, the same as the fishing districts that they use.
The basic organizations have the following main tasks:. The superior body of a local organization is its Plenary Meeting. In a municipal organization, such a superior body is represented by the Municipal Conference.
These authorities make decisions on the activity of their organizations, particularly on the important questions and the main tasks, as indicated in union rules. In the period between the Plenary Meetings and Municipal Conferences, the activities of the basic organizations are directed, with full responsibility, by a committee, and between the committee sessions, by the Praesidium of the Committee.
In keeping with the rules and according to the directives of the central bodies, the over-all activities and economic affairs of the basic organizations are supervised by the auditing bodies, elected by the Plenary Meeting. The task of the regional organizations is to direct, co-ordinate, and control the work and activity of the subordinated basic organizations and to secure the fulfillment of union tasks within its respective region.